Part 12 of the series: "The Romans NEVER CRUCIFIED the Way We Think They Did!"
Part 11 - Impalements in Antiquity (1).
Part 10 - Humiliations.
Part 9 - Utility Poles and Masts.
Part 8 - Crown of Thorns.
Part 7 - Crucifixion and Priapus.
Part 6 - From Wax Image to Exposed Body.
Part 5 - The First Crucifix.
Part 4 - The Tropaeum and the Furca.
Part 3 - Crux - Modern English Use and Ancient Quotidian Meanings.
Part 2 - Crux.
Previous Series - Crucifixion – The Bodily Support:
As mentioned in the previous post Impalements in Antiquity (1), Historical, classical and biblical scholars, particularly those of an Evangelical bent, widely assume that mere crucifixion (only nailing or binding to a "cross" of any shape) was frequent and common throughout the ancient world and among those who crucified were the Indians, Assyrians, Scythians, Taurians, Celts, Germani, Brittani, Persians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Numidians, Thracians, Judeans, Hellenic peoples of Asia Minor, and of course, the Greeks and the Romans.
If a man make a breach in a house, they shall put him to death in front of that breach and they shall thrust him therein.
Code of Hammurabi, 21  
If a woman bring about the death of her husband for the sake of another man, they shall impale her.
Code of Hammurabi, 153 "If a man deceive a brander and he brand a slave with the sign that he cannot be sold, they shall put that man to death, and they shall cast him into his house. The brander shall swear: "I did not brand him knowingly," and he shall go free."Code of Hammurabi, 227  
C.1. Interpreting Ancient Hieroglyphics.
It can be determined by reviewing ancient Egyptian payri and hieroglyphics that the Egyptians put people to death by means of wooden instruments, and set them up to die on the same. But how? What this thing is, so that people don't just assume that Egyptians nailed people to crosses, can be determined by viewing or researching the hieroglyphics inscribed on the Stela of Akhenaten and other Stelae, describing the cruel and only too usual punishment. Fortunately, German academics are way ahead on this and Muslim apologetics has cast a beam of light upon the research.
Above is the hieroglyph writing for "Pfahl: pale or stake. rdj hr = To put on the stake (for punishment)"; det. = determinative, hieroglyph for classifying Egyptian words. Here it shows an impaled man bent upon a stake. 
Above you may view additional information on the hieroglyph writings that denote impalement on a stake. This hieroglyph listing for Pfahl, "Pale, Stake" and Pfählen, "Pales, Stakes." The listings denoted by the encircled numerals 2, 3, 5 and 6 are indicative of execution by impalement.
Illustration of Egyptian Crucifixion by Impalement from the Hieroglyphics. Source: Joyce A Tyldesley, Judgement of the Pharaoh, Crime and Punishment in Ancient Egypt, p. 65, (ap. Response to Islamic Awareness.com).
C.2. Pharoah Sobekhotep II.
The earliest evidence that people were killed in this manner is found in an archaeological document dating back to the Egyptian city of Thebes in the 17th C. BCE. The document found was the Payrus Boulaq 18, believed to have been written in the reigh of Pharoah Sobekhotep II and contains the following :
Source: Islamic Awareness .
"a blood bath (?) has occured with (by?) wood (?)... the comrade was put on the stake, land near the island... waking alive at the places of life, safety and health ..."  
It is fairly obvious that the "comrade" was done in by a bloody death on or with something made out of wood.
C.3. Pharoah Akhenaten.
This Stela of Akhenaten describes the brutal treatment of Nubians who were captured in combat in the 14th C. BCE: 
Source: Islamic Awareness 
"List (of the enemy belonging to) Ikayta: living Neheshi 80+ ?,... ...their (chiefs?) 12, total number of live captives 145; those who were impaled... ...total 225; beasts 361." 
Akhenaten was Pharoah during the 13th C. BCE. The "Ikayta" the Stela refers to were probably Egypt's arch-nemesis referred to therein as the "vile Kheta": the Hittites. The Hittite Empire was immense. It stretched all the way from what is now western Anatolia in Turkey into northern Syria and was always a threat to Egypt, whose realm included Palestine. The Stela was here describing an invasion of egypt by Hittites, who instigated a revolt by "Nehesi" (Nubians), who lived in what is now southern Egypt and the northern Sudan and were the Pharoah's subjects at the time. This revolt was in the 12th year of Akhenaten's reign: sometime between 1341 and 1339 BCE.
"...Now as for any superintendant of cattle, any superintendant of donkeys, any herdsman belonging to the Temple of Menmare Happy in Abydos, who shall sell of any beast belonging to the Temple of Menmare Happy in Abydos to someone else; likewise whoever may cause it to be offered to some other document, and it not be offered to Osiris his Master in the Temple of Menmare Happy in Abydos; the law shall be executed against him, by condemning him, impaled on the stake, along with forfeiting (?) his wife, his children and all his property to the Temple of Menmare Happy in Abydos, ..." 
C.5. Pharoah Merenptah.
The next incident involves a combat with the Libyans at the end of the 13th C. BCE.  The Libyans meet their fate of suspension at a site south of Memphis, which was the ancient capital of Egypt, not where Elvis Presley made his bid for fame.
"...Never shall they leave any people for the Libu (i.e., Libyans), any who shall bring them up in their land! They are cast to the ground, (?) by hundred-thousands and ten-thousands, the remainder being impaled ('put to the stake') on the south of Memphis. All their property was plundered, being brought back to Egypt..." 
"...The notables caused this coppersmith to be examined in the most severe
examination in the Great Valley, but it could not be found that he knew of any
place there save the two places he had pointed out. He took an oath on pain of
being beaten, of having his nose and ears cut off, and of being impaled, saying
I know of no place here among these tombs except this tomb which is open and
this house which I pointed to you..." 
9 But Ninus treated him with great magnanimity, and agreed that he should not only continue to rule over Armenia but should also, as his friend, furnish a contingent and supplies for the Assyrian army. And as his power continually increased, he made a campaign against Media. 10 And the king of this country, Pharnus, meeting him in battle with a formidable force, was defeated, and he both lost the larger part of his soldiers, and himself, being taken captive along with his seven sons and wife, was crucified.9 ὁ δὲ Νίνος μεγαλοψύχως αὐτῷ χρησάμενοςτῆς τε Ἀρμενίας συνεχώρησεν ἄρχειν καὶ φίλον ὄντα πέμπειν στρατιὰν καὶ τὴν χορηγίαν τῷ σφετέρῳ στρατοπέδῳ. ἀεὶ δὲ μᾶλλον αὐξόμενος ἐστράτευσεν εἰς τὴν Μηδίαν. 10 ὁ δὲ ταυτ́ης βασιλεὺς Φαρνος παραταξάμενος ἀξιολόγω δυνάμει καὶ λειφθείς, τω̂ν τε στρατιωτω̂ν τοὺς πλείους ἀπέβαλε καὶ αὐτὸς μετὰ τέκνων ἑπτὰ καὶ γυναικὸς αἰχμάλωτος ληφθεὶς ἀνεσταυρώθη.Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 2.1.9,10 
The Liddell, Scott and Jones lexicon has the following listing for ἀνασταυρόω: "ἀνασταυρ-όω, = foreg., Hdt.3.125, 6.30, al.; identical with ἀνασκολοπίζω, 9.78:--Pass., Th. 1.110, Pl. Grg.473c.; II. in Rom. times, affix to a cross, crucify, Plb. 1.11.5, al., Plu.Fab.6, al.; 2. crucify afresh, Ep. Hebr.6.6."The Middle Liddell has the following: "ἀνασταυρόω. I. to impale. Hdt.: -- Pass., Thuc.; II. in the Rom. times, to affix to a cross, crucify, Plut.; 2. to crucify afresh, NTest."
Cyniscius: Well I suppose I must not ask you all [Divine Providence, Lady Destiny and you guys] why... ... the effeminate Sardanapalus was a king, and one high minded Persian after another went to the cross for refusing to countenance his doings?Κυνίσκος: οὐκοῦν μηδὲ ἐκεῖνο ὑμᾶς ἔρωμαι, σέ τε καὶ τὴν Πρόνοιαν καὶ τὴν Εἱμαρμένην, τί δήποτε... ...καὶ Σαρδανάπαλλος μὲν ἐβασίλευε θῆλυς ὤν, Γώχης δὲ ἀνὴρ ἐνάρετος ἀνεσκολοπίσθη πρὸς αὐτοῦ, διότι μὴ ἠρέσκετο τοῖς γιγνομένοις.Lucian, Iuppiter Confutatus 16 
The Liddell, Scott and Jones entry for ἀνασκολοπίζω: "ἀνασκολοπ-ίζω :—Pass., with fut. Med. -σκολοπιοῦμαι (in pass. sense) Hdt.3.132, 4.43, but Pass.: A. “-σκολοπισθήσομαι” Luc.Prom.7: aor. -εσκολοπίσθην ib.2,10: pf. “-εσκολόπισμαι” Id.Peregr.13:—fix on a pole or stake, impale, Hdt.1.128, 3.159, al.; in 9.78 it is used convertibly with ἀνασταυρόω, as in Ph.1.237,687, Luc.Peregr.11."The Middle Liddell entry yields "ἀνασκολοπίζω: The middle future form ἀνασκολοπιοῦμαι has a passive meaning: to fix on a pole or stake, impale, Hdt."
12 שָׂרִים֙ בְּיָדָ֣ם נִתְל֔וּ פְּנֵ֥י זְקֵנִ֖ים לֹ֥א נֶהְדָּֽרוּ׃13 בַּחוּרִים֙ טְחֹ֣ון נָשָׂ֔אוּ וּנְעָרִ֖ים בָּעֵ֥ץ כָּשָֽׁלוּ׃
NAS Exhaustive Concordance short definition: "to stumble, stagger, totter." Strong's Exhaustive Concordance short definition: "bereave, cast down, be decayed, cause to fail, make to fall down feeble, be the ruined"  Strong's further states that the staggering, stumbling is due to weakness in the legs, particularly the ankles.
12 ἄρχοντες ἐν χερσὶν αὐτῶν ἐκρεμάσθησαν πρεσβύτεροι οὐκ ἐδοξάσθησαν13 ἐκλεκτοὶ κλαυθμὸν ἀνέλαβον καὶ νεανίσκοι ἐν ξύλῳ ἠσθένησαν
12 רברכין בידיהון אצטליבו אפי סביא לא סברו13 רובין ריחיא נטלא וטליא בצליבת קיסא תקלו
 J. M. Ford, "The Crucifixion Of Women In Antiquity", Journal of Higher Criticism, 1996, op. cit., pp. 293-294 (ap. M S M Saifullah, Elias Karim & ʿAbdullah David. "Crucifixion or Crucifiction in Ancient Egypt?" Islamic Awareness, Updated 23 January 2009, accessed 10 March 2012). Ford's article here.
 Robert Francis Harper, The Code of Hammurabi, 1904, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Callaghan & Company, p. 17, PDF page 35, Wikipedia.org. Section 21 is transcribed below without the texts' diacritical markings. For the diacritical markings, see the PDF, enlarged at full-size here.
Section 21.--IX, 14-21.
14. sum-ma a-wi-lum 15 bi-tam 16 ip-lu-us 17 i-na pa-ni 18 bi-il-si-im 19 su-a-ti 20 i-du-uk-ku-su-ma 21 i-ha-al-la-lu-su.
"If a man make a breach in a house, they shall put him to death in front of that breach and thrust him therein."
An alternate reading for Section 21 is as follows: "The punishment for breaking through a wall in a house was death followed by impalement. Impalement after death reflects the crime; he pierced the wall, so his body is pierced." Driver and Miles, Babylonian Laws, pp. 108-9. (ap. J.M. Ford, "Crucifixion of Women"). The alternate reading for section 21 would also apply to Section 227, due to the common original verb, apparently "i-ha-al-lu-su".
 Chapman has argued that both Sections 21 and 227 refer to a post-mortem suspension of the offender. (David W. Chapman, Ancient Jewish and Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion, 2008 Grand Rapids, Mich., Baker Academic / Baker Publishing Group, pp. 99-100, n.8.)
 Harper, p. 55, PDF page 73, Wikipedia.org. Section 153 is transcribed below without the diacritical markings.
An alternate reading reads thusly: "If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates (her husband and the other man's wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled." L. W. King, trans. Hammurabi's Code of Laws, 1915 trans., gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/11/ (ap. Code of Hammurabi webpage, fordham.edu)
Section 153.--XXV, 61-66.
61 sum-ma as-sa-at a-wi-lim 62 as-sum zi-ka-ri-im 63 sa-ni-im 64 mu-za us-di-ik zinnistam su-a-ti i-na ga-si-si-im 66 i-sa-ak-ka-nu-si
"If a woman bring about the death of her husband for the sake of another man, they shall impale her."
 Harper, p. 55, PDF page 99, Wikipedia.org. Section 227 is transcribed below without the diacritical markings.
Section 227.--XXXV, 43-55.
43 sum-ma a-wi-lum 44 gallabam i-da-as-ma 45 ab-bu-ti 46 wardi la se-e-im 47 ug-da-al-li-ib 48 a-wi-lam su-a-ti 49 i-du-uk-ku-su-ma 50 i-na babi-su 51 i-ha-al-lu-su 52 gallabum i-na i-du-u 53 la u-gal-li-bu 54 i-tam-ma-ma 55 u-ta-as-sar
"If a man deceive a brander and he brand a slave with the sign that he cannot be sold, they shall put that man to death, and they shall cast him into his house. The brander shall swear: "I did not brand him knowingly," and he shall go free."
 Driver and Miles , p. 456. (ap. J.M. Ford, "Crucifixion of Women"). The exact verbiage in ford's article follows as this: "Driver and Miles note that the: Babylonian phrase is 'they shall put her on a stake,' while the Assyrian law has 'they shall set her up on pieces of wood.' Driver and Miles continue: '... the substitution of a plural noun suggests crucifixion on crossed pieces of wood, which further agrees with the use of the derived Syriac verb meaning "set up, erected" for "crucified" (Syr. zqap)'." The verb in question is probably the Assyrian zaqapu or zaqipu, both of which are related to the Aramaic זְקַף (zek-apf') and its cognates, meaning "raised, hanged, impaled, and lastly, crucified (by the Romans)." (Chapman, p. 26-7, n.106; p. 100, n. 10)
 Chapman, p. 99: Chapman states that the Assyrian punishment is a form of impalement and further, that her corpse is to be left unburied. (Tablet A, Sect. 53) Cf. G.R. Driver & John C. Miles, The Assyrian Laws, Ancient Codes and Laws of the Near East, 1935, Oxford, Clarendon press, pp. 115-118 & 420-421. (ap. Chapman, p.99, n. 7)
 R. Hannig, Die Sprache Der Pharaonen Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch - Deutsch (2800-950 v. Chr.), 1995, Kulturgeschichte Der Antiken Welt - 64, Verlag Philipp Von Zabern: Mainz, p. 929. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifixion or Crucifiction")
 It seems the hieroglyphic determinative is rare. Joyce Tyldesley, in a discussion on crime and punishment in Egypt, has this to say:
"The preferred method of execution was by impaling on a stake. The rare hieroglyphic determinative for this type of execution shows a man suspended by the centre of his torso on the point of a pole. The man lies face down so that his arms and legs dangle towards the ground. Death would have been quick if the spike pierced the heart or a major blood vessel. If not, the condemned faced a long, excruciating demise."
See J. Tyldesley, "Crime And Punishment In Ancient Egypt", Ancient Egypt: The History, People & Culture Of The Nile Valley, 2004 (June/July), Volume 4, Issue 6, p. 31; For a similar treatment albeit in slightly more detail, please see J. Tyldesley, Judgement Of The Pharaoh: Crime And Punishment In Ancient Egypt, 2000, Phoenix: London, pp. 64-66.
(ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifixion or Crucifiction")
 R. Hannig, Die Sprache Der Pharaonen Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch - Deutsch (2800-950 v. Chr.), 2000, Kulturgeschichte Der Antiken Welt - 86, Verlag Philipp Von Zabern: Mainz, p. 964. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifixion or Crucifiction")
 Marco Caceres, "Those Uppity Nubians," The Crucifixions weblog, wordpress.com.
 The image is taken from W. Heck's Historisch-Biographische Texte Der 2. Zwischenzeit Und Neue Texte Der 18. Dynastie, 1975, Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden, p. 10.
For a detailed study and translation of Papyrus Boulaq 18 see A. Scharff, "Ein Rechnungsbuch des Königlichen Hofes Aus Der 13. Dynastie (Papyrus Boulaq Nr. 18)", Zeitschrift Für Ägyptische Sprache Und Altertumskunde, 1922, Volume 57, pp. 51-68. Relevant material is on p. 62. The translation in German reads: "gemacht wurde dort ein Blutbad(?) mit (durch?) Holz(?)... der Genosse tp-ht, landen bei der Insel ...; lebend erwachen an den Stätten des Lebens, Heils und der Gesundheit ..."
Scharff left the "tp-ht" untranslated. He compares it with Papyrus Abbott and says "wo es etwa 'Marterpfahl' bedeutet", i.e., where it signifies possibly "stake", see p. 62.
(ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifixion or Crucifiction")
 Ibid, "Those Uppity Nubians."
 Akhenaten's reign was from 1353 to 1336 BCE or 1351 to 1334 BCE. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhenaten
 H. S. Smith, The Fortress Of Buhen: The Inscriptions, 1976, Forty Eighth Excavation Memoir, Egyptian Exploration Society: London (UK), pp. 125-127 and Plate 29. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifixion or Crucifiction")
 Carceres, "Offending Osiris."
 K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical And Biographical, 1975, Volume I, B. H. Blackwell Ltd.: Oxford (UK), No. 56, 1. The image was taken from here; K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions: Translated & Annotated (Translations), 1993, Volume I (Ramesses I, Sethos I and Contemporaries), Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Oxford (UK), p. 48 (No. 56, 1). (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifxion or Crucifiction")
 Carceres, "South of Memphis."
 K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical And Biographical, 1982, Volume IV, B. H. Blackwell Ltd.: Oxford (UK), No. 1, 13. The image was taken from here; K. A. Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions: Translated & Annotated (Translations), 2003, Volume IV (Merenptah & The Late Nineteenth Dynasty), Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Oxford (UK), p. 1. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifxion or Crucifiction")
 Carceres, "Offending Osiris."
 T. E. Peet, The Great Tomb Robberies Of The Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty: Being A Critical Study, With Translations And Commentaries, of The Papyri In Which These Are Recorded, 1930, II Plates, The Provost & Fellows Of Worcester College At The Clarendon Press: Oxford, Plate III, Papyrus Abbott No. 5, 7; T. E. Peet, The Great Tomb Robberies Of The Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty: Being A Critical Study, With Translations And Commentaries, of The Papyri In Which These Are Recorded, 1930, I Text, The Provost & Fellows Of Worcester College At The Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 40. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifxion or Crucifiction")
[21a] Chapman, p. 99. In note 6 therein Chapman cites David M. Clemens' (Sources for Ugaritic Ritual and Sacrifice: Volume 1: Ugaritic and Ugarit Akkadian Texts, AOAT 248/1, 2001, Münster, Ugarit-Verlag, pp. 1038-1040) discussion of the Ugaritic teexts. Clemens argure that it is impalement the text refers to although the text's editor, Arnaud, occasionally translated the text for "impale" as "crucify" and Clemens admits there is plural mention of wood and only singular reference to the criminal.
 Robert McRoberts, "The Fall of the Mitanni Kingdom," mcroberts-robert.suite101.com
 Françoise Adriana Tjerkstra, Principles of the Relation between Local Adverb, Verb and Sentence Particle in Hittite, 1999 Groningen, STYX Publications, p. 107, n. 44. (Google Books preview) Tjerkstra in his discussion of da- notes that there is a verb taks-, "to fasten, to put together" and immiya-, "mix, blend" that are considered dative-locative and with an instrumental case. The impalement reference, KUB XXXI 1+ KBo III 16 II 7'-8' (CTH 311.2A, OH+), was the closest parallel for the construction suggested prior to Tjerska's tome. Although it is obvious to interpret both ispannit and URUDU tapulliannit as Adjuncts and Means, it is also possible that ispannit is governed by isgar-, like in the english "to impale on a spit." Nota bene: the Old Hittite transliteration was used without the customary diacritical marks, see the Google books preview or the publication itself for the transliteration with the markings.
 "The Hittite Period," Special: Ataman, Turkey, atamanhotel.com.
 The British Museum, Explore / Highlights, "Stone Panel from the South-West Palace of Sennacherib (Room 36, no. 7), Accessed 10 March 2012. Cf. J. B. Pritchard, The Ancient Near East In Pictures Relating To The Old Testament, 1954, Princeton University Press: Princeton (NJ), No. 373. (ap. Chapman, p. 100, n. 9)
 J. B. Pritchard, No. 362, p. 126 for picture and p. 292 for text. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifxion or Crucifiction")
 Ibid., No. 368, p. 128 for picture and p. 293 for text. (ap. Saifullah, Karim & David, "Crucifxion or Crucifiction")
 Ancient Replicas website, "Impaled Prisoners" webpage, accessed 10 March 2010.
 Daniel David Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 2 Vols., 1926-1927, Chicago, University of Chicago, Vol. 2, pp. 294-295, 324; also Vol. 1, p. 279 (Annals of tiglath Pileser III); Vol. 1, p. 281 (Nimrud Slab Inscription ca. 734 BCE); and Vol. 1, p. 284 (Nimrud Slab Inscription, 728 BCE). (ap. Chapman, p. 100, n. 10)
 Luckenbill, Ancient Records, Vol. 2, pp. 294-295 (Rassam Cylinder); Vol. 2, p. 324 (Cylinder B) (ap. Chapman, p. 100, n. 11)
 Luckenbill, Ancient Records, Vol. 2, p. 195. (ap. Chapman, p. 99 n. 8)
 Martin Hengel (John Bowden, trans.), Crucifixion, 1977, Philadelphia, Fortress Press, pp. 22-23, n. 4. Herein he states that "The Assyrian king Ninus has the Median King Pharnus crucified: Diodorus 2.1.10. Lucian, Iuppiter confutatis 16: Sardanapalus becomes king and has the valiant (ἀνήρ ἐνάρετος) Goches crucified. Of course these reports have no historical value." Then he goes on to admit the Assyrians impaled people.
 English translation: Diodorus Siculus (C. H. Oldfather, trans.), The Library of History, Vol. I, 1933, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library edition. transcribed online by Bill Thayer, Lacus Curtius, penelope.uchicago.edu. Greek text: Diodorus Siculus, (Immanuel Bekker, Ludwig Dindorf, Friedrich Vogel, Immanuel Bekker, eds.) Bibliotheca Historia, Books I-V, transcribed online by Perseus Digital Library, perseus.tufts.edu.
 Refer to P. H. Gosse, Assyria; Her Manners And Customs, Arts And Arms: Her Manners And Customs, Arts and Arms Restored From Her Monuments, 1852, Society For Promotion Of Christian Knowledge: London, p. 349 (Google Books preview). A similar statement is also seen in W. Palmer's Egyptian Chronicles. With A Harmony Of Sacred And Egyptian Chronology, And An Appendix On Babylonian And Assyrian Antiquities, 2006, Volume II, Elibron Classics, p. 908 (Google Books preview).
Gosse's text reads as follows: "The terrible death of impalement was inflicted by the Assyrian conquerors upon their victims in all ages of their empire; though from the rarity of the representations we may suppose that it was not very common, and marked cases of peculiar exasperation. Perhaps it was mostly reserved for the leaders of rebellion. According to Diodorus (ii. sect. 1) Ninus impaled Pharnus, the king of Media."
Palmer's text reads: "Ninus then attacked Pharnus, king of Media, and after a great victory took him prisoner and caused him to be impaled."
Rom. Hist. 75.8.3 (Greek - Perseus.tufts.edu) (English - Penelope.uchicago.edu)